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2-Chloroethanol Antagonistic Effect on the Resistance

Time:2015/12/3 7:01:16

Antagonistic Effect of Urea and 2-Chloroethanol on the Resistance to High Salt Concentration in Wheat Seedlings
IT is considered that the ammonia produced by the hydrolysis of urea in the soil damages the roots of plants. Recently, Cooke1 reported that at least one other factor may be operative in urea toxicity. Weber and Tanford2 demonstrated that 2-chloroethanol strengthened the intramolecular hydrogen-bonding of ribonuclease and urea possessed the opposite character. The increase of resistance to high salt concentration by the seed treatment with dilute 2-chloroethanol solution was found by Miyamoto3. The present investigation deals with the antagonistic effect of urea and 2-chloroethanol on the resistance when their dilute solutions are applied to the wheat seed treatment.
Anaerobic oxidation of 2-chloroethanol under denitrifying conditions by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain JJ
A bacterium that uses 2-chloroethanol as sole energy and carbon source coupled to denitrification was isolated from 1,2-dichloroethane-contaminated soil. Its 16 S rDNA sequence showed 98% similarity with the type strain of Pseudomonas stutzeri (DSM 5190) and the isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri strain JJ. Strain JJ oxidized 2-chloroethanol completely to CO2 with NO3- or O2 as electron acceptor, with a preference for O2 if supplied in combination. Optimum growth on 2-chloroethanol with nitrate occurred at 30 070705C with a 070705max of 0.14 h-1 and a yield of 4.4 g protein per mol 2-chloroethanol metabolized. Under aerobic conditions, the 070705max was 0.31 h-1. NO2- also served as electron acceptor, but reduction of Fe(OH)3, MnO2, SO42-, fumarate or ClO3- was not observed. Another chlorinated compound used as sole energy and carbon source under aerobic and denitrifying conditions was chloroacetate. Various different bacterial strains, including some closely related Pseudomonas stutzeri strains, were tested for their ability to grow on 2-chloroethanol as sole energy and carbon source under aerobic and denitrifying conditions, respectively. Only three strains, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain LMD 76.42, Pseudomonas putida US2 and Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10, grew aerobically on 2-chloroethanol. This is the first report of oxidation of 2-chloroethanol under denitrifying conditions by a pure bacterial culture.