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2-chloroethanol human acute tostcfty

Time:2015/9/24 8:26:22

Serious systemic toxic effects have been reported from exposure to ethyl- ene chlorohydrin. Inhalation of ethylene

chlorohydrin vapor may result in nausea, dizziness. vomiting. circulatory failure. Btupification, and death. Poisoning

occurs from inhalation of 18 DDm. 2-chloroethanol irritatesmucous membranes and causes kidney and liver degeneration The effects

may be cumulative (Ref. 1).


2-chloroethanol Animal Acute To+icfty


1. Lethal dose from oral and patentd adminfstnrCLorr-The acute taxicity(ID,) values have been determined for 2-chloroethanol in mice, rats, rabbits, and dogs (Refs. 4.43. 82-84). The results of these studies point to IDU values in a range of 56mg/kg by the parenteral route in rats to 178 -/kg by the oral route in mice(Ref. 3). 2-chloroethanol was shown to be somewhat more toxic acutely than ethylene oxide. The route of admfnlstration appeared to have little influence on the acute toxicity values. The animals showed signs of central nervous system effects such as depression and labored respiration and usually died within 24 hours without specific organ pathology.

In another study (Friedman et al..Ref. 38). a single oral dose of 2-chloroethanol (10 to 50 mg/kg) caused a dose-related decrease of liver protein synthesis and glutathione level in rats.

2. Imitation to eye and tissue&-The results of studies to determine the acute effect of 2-chloroethanol on eye and other tlssues have been

summnarized by Bruch (Ref. 3). Maximal noeffect concentrations ranged from 0.5 percent (0.25 mg total dose) administered subcutaneously in guinea pigs to 20 percent (40 mg total dose) by dermal application in the rabbit. In the eye and tissue studies by Woodard and Woodard (Ref. 4). 2-chloroethanol solution produced induration and ecchymoses (small hemorrhages) in one of -five anlmals tested following subcutaneous injection (0.5 percent) in the guinea pig. mlnirnal irritation after dermal administration in the

rabbit, and lacrimation and conjuncti- val erythema, corenal opacity, Lri*and conjunctival irritation following ocular adminlstratlon in the rabbit.

The acute eye irritant properties of 2-chloroethanol (In a balanced salt solution) were investigated in the rabblt by McDonald et al.. (Ref. 6).

The maximal nondamaging concentra tions of ethylene oxide ranged from 2 percent for the conjunctiva to greater than 40 percent for the lens after a 6-

hour acute topical ocular instillation.

After a single anterior chamber instillation,0.5 percent and 5 percent were the maximum nondamaging concentrations of 2-chloroethanol for the iris and conjunctiva, respectively.