Ethylene chlorohydrin




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Ethylene chlorohydrin summary

Time:2015/9/24 6:34:26

Ethylene chlorohydrin is used in the of manufacture pesticides, plasticizers, plant-protection agents, and dye intermediates. It is generally manufactured with a purity of >99%

with some being produced as an anhydrous grade. It is also used a precursor in the production of ethylene oxide. An odor threshold of 0.4 ppm has been reported but data are not available with which to determine an Acute Level of Odor Awareness (LOA).

Information regarding the effects of ethylene chlorohydrin vapor exposure in humans is limited. The available reports lack exposure terms and involve concurrent exposure to other chemicals. Case reports do not provide definitive information regarding target organs or cause of death. Human data with which to develop AEGL values are not available Data in animals are limited to the extent that most experimental results show either 100% lethality or no lethality. For some exposures deaths were delayed for several hours to one day.

Both interspecific and intraspecific variability in the lethal response was evident among the three species (rats, mouse, and guinea pig) for which data are available. Although discomfort, irritation, and narcosis-like signs were reported for animals exposed to ethylene chlorohydrin, it was unclear if these occurred in all exposures or only those resulting in death. Based upon the limited published reports, ethylene chlorohydrin toxicity involves multiple organs and systems rather than a being highly irritating, corrosive agent. However, the mode of action of ethylene chlorohydrin toxicity is not known. The animal data are insufficient for defining the exposure-response relationship for ethylene chlorohydrin vapor exposure.

Data were insufficient for deriving AEGL-1 values. There were neither human nor animal data on AEGL-1 severity effects following exposure to ethylene chlorohydrin vapor.

Data on AEGL-2 severity effects in humans were not available. Because animal data were limited to no lethality or 100% lethality, the exposure-response relationship for ethylene chlorohydrin vapor exposure is not known and there are no data pertaining to AEGL-2 tier effects. Data in mice (Goldblatt, 1944) showed there to be less than a four-fold difference between a nonlethal response (2800 ppm for 120 minutes) and 100% lethality (1,090 ppm for 120 minutes) which suggests a steep exposure-response relationship. Consistent with NRC (2001) guidance, the AEGL-2 values have been estimated as a three-fold reduction of the AEGL-3 values.

Data on the toxicity of ethylene chlorohdyrin vapor in animals are limited to experimental results showing no lethality or 100% lethality. These data do not allow for meaningful statistical analysis or valid estimation of a lethality threshold or benchmark.

Analysis of the mouse data from the Goldblatt (1944) revealed both nonlethal and lethal exposures for durations of 120 minutes. Specifically, a 120-minute exposure to 280 ppm was not lethal while exposure to 1090 ppm for the same duration resulted in 100% lethality.

The available data do not allow for empirical derivation of a temporal scaling factor (n). The exposure concentration-exposure duration relationship for many irritant and systemically acting vapors and gases may be described by Cn 47 x t = k, where the exponent, n, ranges from 0.8 to 3.5 (ten Berge et al., 1986). In the absence of an empirically derived exponent (n), temporal scaling from the experimental duration of the POD to AEGL-specific durations was performed 

ETHYLENE CHLOROHYDRIN (2-CHLOROETHANOL) Page 8 of 37 INTERIM 05/2008 using n = 3 when extrapolating to shorter time points and n = 1 when extrapolating to longer time points using the Cn 2 x t = k equation.

Based upon a 3 to 4-fold difference in the lethal response between the rats and mice, which are the more sensitive of the species tested, an interspecies uncertainty factor of 3 was considered appropriate. Ethylene chlorohydrin does not appear to be a direct-contact irritant and death in animals does not appear to be a function of damaged respiratory tract epithelial tissue.

In the absence of data regarding the mode of action of ethylene chlorohydrin toxicity and because of the small numbers of animals used in the reported studies, an intraspecies uncertainty factor is 10. The total uncertainty factor adjustment is 30.