Ethylene chlorohydrin




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2-chloroethanol Determination in honey, beeswax, and pollen

Time:2015/12/15 6:25:16

Determination of 2-chloroethanol in honey, beeswax, and pollen

Abstract Procedures were developed and tested for the determination of residues of 2-chloroethanol (ethylene chlorohydrin, ECH) in honey, beeswax, and pollen. Recoveries of ECH from fortified samples averaged 91, 87, and 89%, respectively, for each substrate. The maximum amount of ECH found in substrate fumigated with ethylene oxide was 36 micrograms/g in honey, 124 micrograms/g in beeswax, and 132 micrograms/g in pollen. A tendency was noted for darker waxes, which contain larger amounts of naturally occurring chlorides than light-colored waxes, to contain the greater amounts of ECH. A gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a Dohrmann halogen-specific detector was used for identification and quantitation.

Kinetic studies of hydrazine and 2-hydroxyethylhydrazine alkylation by 2-chloroethanol: Influence of a strong base in the medium

Abstract To optimize yields, the study of reaction kinetics related to the synthesis of 2-hydroxyethylhydrazine (HEH) obtained from the alkylation of N 2 H 4 by 2-chloroethanol (CletOH) was carried out with and without sodium hydroxide. In both cases, the main reaction of HEH formation was followed by a consecutive, parallel reaction of HEH alkylation (or dialkylation of N 2 H 4 ), leading to the formation of two isomers: 1,1-di(hydroxyethyl)hydrazine and 1,2-di(hydroxyethyl)hydrazine. In this study, hydrazine and hydroxyalkylhydrazine alkylations followed S N 2 reactions triggered directly by CletOH or indirectly in the presence of a strong base by ethylene oxide, an intermediate compound. The kinetics was studied in diluted mediums by quantifying HEH and CletOH by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The activation parameters of each reaction and the influence of a strong base present in the medium on the reaction mechanisms were established. A global mathematical treatment was applied for each alternative. It allowed modeling the reactions as a function of reagent concentrations and temperature. In the case of direct alkylation by CletOH, simulation was established for semi-batch and batch syntheses and was confirmed in experiments for concentrated mediums (1.0 M ≤ [CletOH] 0 ≤ 3.2 M and 15.7 M ≤ [N 2 H 4 ] 0 ≤ 18.8 M). Simulation therefore permits the prediction of the instantaneous concentration of reagents and products, in particular ethylene oxide concentration in the case of indirect alkylation, which must be as weak as possible. 08 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 41: 382–393, 2009