Ethylene chlorohydrin




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Chlorohydrin reacted with hypochlorous acid

Time:2015/11/30 5:44:44

Chlorohydrin formation from unsaturated fatty acids reacted with hypochlorous acid

Stimulated neutrophils produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) via the myeloperoxidase-catalyzed reaction of hydrogen peroxide with chloride. The reactions of HOCl with oleic, linoleic, and arachidonic acids both as free fatty acids or bound in phosphatidylcholine have been studied. The products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the methylated and trimethylsilylated derivatives. Oleic acid was converted to the two 9,10-chlorohydrin isomers in near stoichiometric yield. Linoleic acid, at low HOCl:fatty acid ratios, yielded predominantly a mixture of the four possible monochlorohydrin isomers. Bischlorohydrins were also formed, in increasing amounts at higher HOCl concentrations. Arachidonic acid gave a complex mixture of mono- and bischlorohydrins, the relative proportions depending on the amount of HOCl added. Linoleic acid appears to be slightly more reactive than oleic acid with HOCl. Reactions of oleic and linoleic acids with myeloperoxidase, hydrogen peroxide, and chloride gave chlorohydrin products identical to those with HOCl. Lipid chlorohydrins have received little attention as products of reactions of neutrophil oxidants. They are more polar than the parent fatty acids, and if formed in cell membranes could cause disruption to membrane structure. Since cellular targets for HOCl appear to be membrane constituents, chlorohydrin formation from unsaturated lipids could be significant in neutrophil-mediated cytotoxicity.

Antifertility actions of alpha-chlorohydrin in the male

Nonsteroidal chemicals that affect male fertility have been known for over 25 years but only 1 compound alpha-chlorohydrin possesses most of the attributes of an ideal male contraceptive. In the male rat for example continuous daily oral administration of low doses produces an almost immediate and continuous antifertility response that ceases when treatment is withdrawn. Such a dose regime does not interfere with libido is apparently not toxic and the action is specific towards mature sperm. Furthermore the action of the compound is species-specific: it is effective in the rat ram boar guinea pig hamster rhesus monkey and upon ejaculated human sperm but is ineffective in the mouse and rabbit. High doses of alpha-chlorohydrin can be neurotoxic nephrotoxic and in rats leads to prolonged or permanent infertility. However the antifertility response and the toxicity of racemic alpha-chlorohydrin may be due respectively to the separate enantiomers. No other antifertility chemical has been investigated to such an extent as alpha-chlorohydrin; this article reviews the progress that has been achieved with alpha-chlorohydrin during the past 6 years.