Ethylene chlorohydrin




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Ethylene chlorohydrin animal toxicity data

Time:2015/9/24 7:02:42

Acute Lethality


Ambrose (1950) reported on experiments in which groups of five adult male rats (strain not specified) were exposed using various exposure regimens and various dilutions of the test material. Various dilutions of ethylene chlorohydrin were placed in a bubbling tower immersed in a 40°C water bath. Air was passed through this tower and into the exposure chamber (air flow was not specified but noted as never exceeding 570 ml/minute). Based upon the experimental results, the investigators noted that ethylene chlorohydrin was extremely toxic but deaths were delayed from 1 hour to 24 hours depending on the exposure concentrations. One hour exposure ETHYLENE CHLOROHYDRIN (2-CHLOROETHANOL) Page 11 of 37 INTERIM 05/2008 of rats to 7.5 ppm was lethal (no further details). Repeated exposure (assumedly 2 hours,number of exposures not specified) to 2 ppm also resulted in a nonspecified lethality incidence.

Qualitatively, rats exhibited no signs of toxicity prior to ethylene chlorohydrin-induced lethality.

Necropsy findings included cyanosis, dark blood, and liver and kidneys that were “darker than normal”.

Goldblatt (1944) reported results of single exposure experiments in young adult rats (3/exposure group, strain and gender not stated) exposed to ethylene chlorohydrin vapor. The

9 exposure apparatus consisted of a gas meter, low meter, constant dropping apparatus, a suction system, and chambers for vaporization, mixing, and exposure. Air flow was maintained at 8-10 L/minute and dropping of the test article was precisely controlled. Although no analytical data were provided, the investigator noted that the vapor concentration could be calculated within reasonable limits for any air flow or test article drop rate. It was stated that the ethylene chlorohydrin was pure but no data were provided. A 15-minute exposure to 0.003 g/L (840 ppm;based upon the conversion of 0.001 g/L=280 ppm, v/v provided by the investigator) and a120-minute exposure to 0.001 g/L (226 ppm) were not lethal while a 30-minute exposure to 0.004g/L (1,120 ppm) and 60-minute exposure to 0.003 g/L (840 ppm) killed all three rats within 1 day (Table 2). It was reported that narcosis was not produced and that for most exposures deaths occurred following the exposure rather than during the exposure. Histological examinations revealed renal damage (medullary hemorrhage, hemolysis, swollen and detached convoluted tubules) and areas of collapse in the lungs but no pulmonary hemorrhage or edema.