Ethylene chlorohydrin




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chlorohydrin effect on the metabolism of glycolytic

Time:2015/12/1 8:02:18

The neurotoxicity of alpha-chlorohydrin in rats and mice: II. Lesion topography and factors in selective vulnerability in acute energy deprivation syndromes

Mice and rats have been found almost equally susceptible to (R, S)-alpha-chlorohydrin neurotoxicity, but in rats the distribution of lesions in the neuraxis is less widespread. The topography of the brain lesions shows an incomplete relationship to the regional hierarchy of local glucose utilization in rats and local cerebral blood flow in mice, suggesting that other, unknown, factors also play roles in determining this. Evidence suggesting progressive tonotopic selective vulnerability was found in inferior colliculi in rats given five doses of 50 mg/kg/day. Distinct differences in the patterns of damage to brain stem centres found with chlorohydrin by comparison with other acute energy deprivation syndromes, despite the proximity of the metabolic lesions along the energy generation pathway, suggests there are other unrecognized factors that play a role in determining whether a neuronal centre is at risk or no

Mode of action of alpha-chlorohydrin as a male anti-fertility agent. Inhibition of the metabolism of ram spermatozoa by alpha-chlorohydrin and location of block in glycolysis

1. The effect of alpha-chlorohydrin on the metabolism of glycolytic and tricarboxylate-cycle substrates by ram spermatozoa was investigated. The utilization and oxidation of fructose and triose phosphate were much more sensitive to inhibition by alpha-chlorohydrin (0.1-1.0mm) than lactate or pyruvate. Inhibition of glycolysis by alpha-chlorohydrin is concluded to be between triose phosphate and pyruvate formation. Oxidation of glycerol was not as severely inhibited as that of the triose phosphate. This unexpected finding can be explained in terms of competition between glycerol and alpha-chlorohydrin. A second, much less sensitive site, of alpha-chlorohydrin inhibition appears to be associated with production of acetyl-CoA from exogenous and endogenous fatty acids. 2. Measurement of the glycolytic intermediates after incubation of spermatozoal suspensions with 15mm-fructose in the presence of 3mm-alpha-chlorohydrin showed a ;block' in the conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate into 3-phosphoglycerate. alpha-Chlorohydrin also caused conversion of most of the ATP in spermatozoa into AMP. After incubation with 3mm-alpha-chlorohydrin, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and triose phosphate isomerase activities were decreased by approx. 90% and 80% respectively, and in some experiments aldolase was also inhibited. Other glycolytic enzymes were not affected by a low concentration (0.3mm) of alpha-chlorohydrin. Loss of motility of spermatozoa paralleled the decrease in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. alpha-Chlorohydrin, however, did not inhibit glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase or triose phosphate isomerase in sonicated enzyme preparations when added to the assay cuvette. 3. Measurement of intermediates and glycolytic enzymes in ejaculated spermatozoa before, during and after injection of rams with alpha-chlorohydrin (25mg/kg body wt.) confirmed a severe block in glycolysis in vivo at the site of triose phosphate conversion into 3-phosphoglycerate within 24h of the first injection. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was no longer detectable and both aldolase and triose phosphate isomerase were severely inhib